A crystalline silicon is a particular kind of photovoltaic cell composed of a single crystal or many crystals of silicon. Wafers with a thickness of 160-240 m, which are thin slices of silicon cut from a single crystal or a block, are used to make crystalline silicon (c-Si) cells. The manufacturing procedure used to make silicon wafers determines the sort of crystalline cell that is created.
What are the types of crystalline silicon solar cells?
There are three types of these solar cells, which are as follows:
- Ribbon or sheet defined film growth
What are the Benefits of crystalline silicon solar cells?
Some of the benefits of these types of solar cells are mentioned below:
- Maturity: A lot of information is available on assessing the design’s reliability and robustness, which is essential to getting funding for deployment projects.
- Performance: A typical industrial silicon cell delivers greater efficiency than any other single-junction device that is produced in large quantities. Because fewer solar cells must be produced and installed for a given output, higher efficiencies lower the ultimate installation cost.
- Reliability: Crystalline silicon cells can last for more than 25 years as modules with negligible long-term deterioration.
- Abundance: In the Earth’s crust, silicon is the second-most prevalent element (after oxygen).
How are crystalline silicon solar cells produced?
Monocrystalline (single-crystal) or multicrystalline silicon is used to make typical crystalline silicon solar cells. Pseudo-square silicon wafers, substrates made from boules grown using the Czochralski process, the float-zone technique, ribbon growth, or other novel approaches are used to create monocrystalline cells. Traditionally, square silicon substrates have been cut from ingots cast in quartz crucibles to make multicrystalline silicon solar cells.
A titanium dioxide (TiO2) or silicon nitride (SiN) antireflective coating (ARC), which is frequently applied to silicon surfaces, is deposited in order to limit the amount of light that is reflected by the solar cell and, consequently, is not used to generate current. The top of the solar cell can be textured with micrometer-sized pyramidal structures, created by a chemical etch technique, to maximise light trapping and absorption.
Also Read: What is a Conduction Band?
A boron-doped p-type silicon substrate is commonly covered with a phosphorus-doped n+ area to form a p-n junction. The rear contact is often made using a metal electrode, such as aluminium, whereas the front contact is typically made using screen-printed silver paste that is put on top of the ARC layer.
Minority-carrier diffusion occurs within the p- and n-doped layers of a crystalline silicon solar cell to gather charge carriers. Carrier collection is aided by long diffusion lengths (> 200 micrometres) throughout the solar cell thickness range where optical absorption takes place.