Electric insulators are substances that have a dielectric property. An illustration is the plastic covering that surrounds electrical wiring. An electrical insulator that can become polarised by an applied electric field is known as a dielectric (ε) or dielectric substance.
Electric charges do not flow through a dielectric (ε) as they do in an electrical conductor; rather, they just slightly deviate from their normal equilibrium positions, resulting in dielectric polarisation. Positive charges shift in the direction of the field as a result of dielectric polarisation, while negative charges shift in the opposite way.
As a result, the dielectric itself produces an internal electric field that weakens the overall field. Weakly bound molecules that make up a dielectric reorient such that their symmetry axes line up with the field, becoming polarised in the process.
Dielectric characteristics research focuses on how materials store and release magnetic and electric energy. Dielectrics play a key role in the explanation of many phenomena in the fields of electronics, optics, solid-state physics, and cell biology.
What is a Dielectric Material?
A dielectric material effectively supports electrostatic fields but is a poor conductor of electricity. It has a high specific resistance, a low temperature coefficient of resistance, and the ability to retain electrical charges.
What are the types of Dielectric material?
The kind of molecules that are present in a substance determines its dielectric properties.
- Polar Dielectric: Positive and negative particles’ centers of mass do not coincide in a polar dielectric. A dipole moment is present in the substance, and molecules are asymmetrically formed. The molecules in the substance line up with the electric field when it is applied to it. The molecules’ net dipole moment is zero when the field is eliminated. Water and hydrochloric acid are two examples of this type.
- Non-Polar Dielectric: Positive and negative particles’ centers of mass coincide in nonpolar dielectric materials. The molecules are symmetrical, and there is no dipole moment in the dielectric substance. Some examples of non-polar dielectric are hydrogen, oxygen, and like.
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Dielectric materials are typically solid. Some examples include Ceramic (porcelain), mica, glass, and other metal oxides. A few gases and liquids also make good dielectric materials.
Variable capacitors and some kinds of transmission lines employ dry air as a great dielectric because of its amazing properties. Helium and nitrogen both make excellent dielectric gases. It is fairly dielectric to use distilled water. An incredibly effective dielectric is a vacuum.