Distribution power refers to the final stage of the transmission and generation processes before sending power to the end customer. A distribution system includes the wires, poles, transformers, and other machinery required to supply electrical power to the consumer at the proper voltages, and it is located at a distribution substation.
Typical components of a distribution system include:
- Circuits for distribution feeders
- Devices for Protection
- Basic Circuits
- Transmission Transformers
What is the Classification of the Customers?
The distribution system targets for the customers can be classified into the following types according to their demand:
- Industrial Customer: The majority of enterprises require 2,400 to 4,160 volts to power heavy equipment, and they typically have their own substation or substations to lower the voltage from the transmission line to the desired level for power-distribution across the plant. To power 3-phase motors, they typically need 3-phase wires.
- Commercial Customer: Distribution voltages between 14.4 kV and 7.2 kV are typically used to serve commercial clients. A service drop line connects a transformer on or near the distribution pole to the customer’s end use structure. To power 3-phase motors, they would need 3-phase wires.
- Residential Customer: With a pole-mounted or pad-mounted transformer, the distribution power is lowered to the end use voltage (120/240 volts single phase). By a service drop line, which runs from the distribution pole transformer to the customer’s building for overhead lines or underground, power is distributed to residential customers.
- Transportation Customer: Light rail and subway systems are the only electric transit options at the moment. The local distribution voltage is lowered to meet the needs of the transportation system by a small distribution substation. The motors in the transportation system are powered by electricity from overhead lines, and the train tracks are connected to the return current lines.
Also Read: What is Demand Side Management (DSM)?