An electricity system includes all of the components used to generate, transmit, distribute, and sell energy. This includes electricity generation and storage facilities, transmission and distribution grids, and all infrastructure associated with them.
In other words, the electricity system is a network that includes generation, distribution, and transmission, and initially, it takes a type of energy (such as coal or diesel) and converts it to electrical energy. The power system includes all of the devices that are linked to it, such as the synchronous generator, motor, transformer, circuit breaker, conductor, and so on.
What is the Structure of Electricity System?
The power system is a complex business that can be divided into the subsystems listed below:
1. Generating Substation
The fuel (coal, water, nuclear energy, etc.) is transformed into electrical energy in a power plant. Electrical power is produced in the 11kV to 25kV range, which is then stepped up for long-distance transmission. The generating substation’s power plant is divided into three types, the thermal power plant, hydropower plant, and nuclear power plant.
2. Transmission Substation
The transmission substation is responsible for the overhead wires that transport electrical energy from generation to distribution substations. It only provides the vast majority of electricity to bulk power substations or very large consumers. Transmission cables primarily serve two purposes.
- It transports energy from power plants to bulk receiving sites.
- It connects two or more power generation facilities and the transmission lines link neighboring substations as well.
3. Sub-Transmission Substation
The sub-transmission system is the section of the transmission system that links the high-voltage substations to the distribution substations via the step-down transformer. The sub-transmission system operates similarly to a distribution system. It is distinct from a delivery system in the following ways.
- The voltage level in a sub-transmission system is greater than in a distribution system.
- It only serves a few substations as opposed to a distribution system that serves some loads.
4. Distribution Substation
A distribution system is a component of an electrical power system that connects all of the consumers in a region to the bulk power sources. Transmission lines link the bulk power stations to the generating substations. They provide power to some substations, which are typically located near load centers. Domestic, commercial, and comparatively small consumers are served by substations. Large blocks of electricity are required by consumers, which are typically supplied at the sub-transmission or transmission system level.
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