As a percentage of the real estate market, the fill factor (FF) means the maximum power that can be produced, the maximum current, as well as the voltage that a solar cell could produce, are, respectively, corresponding to the open-circuit voltage as well as short-circuit current. Yet, the power of the solar cell is zero at both operational locations. The fill factor, most abbreviated as FF, is a **parameter together with V _{oc} and I_{sc}**, and the highest possible output of power is defined from the solar cell.

**What is Fill Factor Formula?**

A solar photovoltaic module’s efficiency is commonly measured by the Fill Factor (FF). It measures the real highest power that may be achieved. The FF is described as the proportion of the highest power of the solar cell to the total(multiplication) of V_{oc} and I_{sc}, which are described as follows:

**FF = (P _{max}) â„ (V_{OC }×— I_{SC}),** where,

**1. Short Circuit Current (I _{SC}):** It is the maximum amount of current Solar PV panels can generate when the voltage drop is zero. There is no power produced because the cables in the panels are connected directly or short-circuited.

**2. Open Circuit Voltage (V _{OC}):** It is the highest voltage a solar photovoltaic panel can produce when the current doesn’t flow in the circuit loop. As there is no load connected to the output circuit, no current is generated.

**3. Highest Possible Power (P _{max}):** Whenever current and voltage are combined to produce the greatest amount of power, this is called the highest possible power (P

_{max}).

Neither open-circuit voltage conditions (V_{OC}) nor short-circuit circumstances cause it to happen (I_{SC}). Like how the voltage at I_{SC} is optimum zero, the cell present at V_{OC} is also thought of as ideal zero. As a result, P_{max} does not occur at the maximum current but rather at a constant power (I_{MPP}), which is lower than I_{SC}. In a similar vein, P_{max} does not happen at maximum voltage but rather at a specific voltage (V_{MPP}), which really is lower than V_{OC}.

Therefore, **P _{max} = V_{MPP} ×— I_{MPP}**

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