Understanding Off Grid Solar System Working Principle


Off-grid solar systems are mostly found in more isolated regions where access to power is difficult. Their working principle is a bit more complicated than other solar systems.

Integrating solar panels into your home is an excellent method to save money while also lowering your ecological footprint. Today, we’ll look at off grid solar system working in detail and see why they are more effective than variety of other solar panels.

How is Off Grid Solar System Working Different from Other Solar Systems?

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Off-grid solar systems are slightly more complicated than normal solar systems, but this complexity allows them to perform much more. Most people who build an off-grid solar system want to use solar to meet all of their energy needs. That implies they’d be completely off the grid. As a result, many of these systems can be found in more isolated regions where access to power is difficult.

So, what stages are included in an off grid solar system working? As with conventional systems, the panels absorb sunlight and transmit it to an inverter, which transforms the energy into electricity. Finally, it is sent to a battery inverter, where the energy is stored until needed. As you can see, there are a lot of moving pieces. After this, let’s learn about off grid solar system working principle.

What is Off Grid Solar System Working Principle?

According to the Off grid solar system working principle, the off-grid solar system is not connected to the power grid; instead, the energy produced by the sun’s rays during the day is stored in batteries. This approach is effective for residences that do not have access to the grid’s electricity and are thus entirely self-sufficient. The power stored in the batteries is used by residences at night and at times when the solar panels are unable to generate the required amount of electricity.

Because there is no standard or typical off-grid system, this type of solar system is usually designed to meet the electricity needs of the home.

Step 1: The power hub is where solar rays are transformed into electricity for usage or storage in batteries. As a result, this hub controls the flow of electricity.

Step 2: The batteries are an important part of this system because they store any excess electricity that is then used when the solar panels are not producing electricity for any reason.

Step 3: You might also use a backup generator to provide power to recharge the batteries if bad weather or peak demand persists for an extended period of time.

Step 4: Because this system is compatible with the existing system, no adjustments to the wiring or other equipment in your home are required. The electricity generated will power all of your home appliances. Your main electricity distribution panel will supply this electricity to your house.

Also Read: How Solar Panels Work Step By Step

What Exactly is an Off-Grid Battery?

When you think of a solar battery, you might imagine something like a modified automobile battery. They are, however, substantially larger than the normal car battery. And these are typically used in the process off grid solar system working.

An off-grid battery, often known as a solar battery, is essentially a big deep-cycle battery. They come in a variety of sizes. Some are little, while others are extremely enormous. Before purchasing a solar battery, be sure it is large enough to power what you want to power and has the capacity to power your home. Second, make certain that it is of great quality and will last. Solar batteries can be very expensive, and you don’t want to have to buy them all the time. After this, let’s get insights on off grid solar system components.

Also Read: How to Use Solar Panel Directly Without Battery?

What are the Off Grid Solar System Components?

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Most DC-coupled Off Grid Solar System components are solar panels, charger controllers, inverters, and battery banks. There is a lot more that may go into setting up a solar system, but those are the four basic components that will be covered in this post.

1. Solar Panels and Installation

Solar panels are the most visible component of an off-grid solar installation. Solar panels with 60, 72, 120, 132, or 144 cells are currently the most cost-effective. Solar cells are the little squares that comprise the complete panel. Monocrystalline panels are now the industry standard in most systems.

Why choose monocrystalline panels over polycrystalline panels? It all boils down to availability and price. Because the industry has transitioned to producing cost-effective monocrystalline modules, monocrystalline panels are most commonly used in off-grid solar systems. Polycrystalline panels had an advantage in the early days since they were less expensive to manufacture. Because monocrystalline has grown more common, efficient, and economical, there is no longer a compelling need to use polycrystalline.

Solar Module Mounting

There are three main installation methods for solar modules, and the choice is usually determined by the application or available mounting space:

  • Roof Mount: Installing a solar array on the roof of a house or structure.
  • Pole Mounting: It entails mounting the solar array on a concrete-secured pole in the ground.
  • Ground Mount: For more stability, mount the solar array on concrete piers closer to the ground

Also See: Solar Shingles Roofing Guide

2. Charge Manager

The charge controller controls the passage of electricity from the solar panels to the battery. Charge controllers ensure that batteries are correctly charged and not overcharged, which is critical for the battery bank’s longevity. MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) and PWM are the two major forms of charge controllers (Pulse Width Modulation).

  • MPPT charge controllers differ in that the input voltage from the solar panels must be 30% more than the voltage of the battery.
  • PWM charge controllers use pulse modulation to control the pace at which energy from solar panels is supplied to batteries.

3. Inverter

An inverter is the next component in the architecture of an off-grid solar system. The inverter in nearly all off-grid solar systems is a battery-powered inverter. The inverter’s job is to convert the DC power stored in the battery bank to usable AC power and transfer it to your loads in the same way that you would plug into an AC outlet in your home. Inverters are available in a variety of sizes that can accommodate lesser or larger loads depending on the off-grid loads required. Another factor to examine is whether the inverter can handle all of the loads that are running in the system at the same time.

4. Batteries

The battery bank is the final major component in the solar system, and it is one of the most significant and expensive concerns. There are two common battery chemistries in the solar power industry-

  • Lithium Batteries: The chemistry of most lithium batteries used in the solar power industry is lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4).
  • Lead Acid Batteries: Flooded lead acid batteries and sealed AGM batteries are the two major types of lead acid batteries used in solar.

Also Read: Alkaline Battery vs Lithium Battery-Which is Better?

Can Off-Grid Solar Run AC?

Solar air conditioning is an innovative technology that allows you to stay cool in the summer while minimizing your energy expenses and carbon footprint. Significant advances in the domains of air conditioning and photovoltaic technology have resulted in a broader range of more energy-efficient solar-powered air conditioners. When it comes to solar AC, there are two options.

  • You can acquire a solar air conditioner.
  • You can convert your present alternating current load to solar energy.

In many situations, customers already have an air conditioner installed in their homes, so all they need to do is shift the load to solar energy. So, if you are wondering can off-grid solar run AC or not, the answer simply is both on-grid and off-grid solar systems can power air conditioners.

The most fundamental distinction between on-grid and off-grid solar solutions is that on-grid systems allow you to use your appliances even if your solar solution is not functioning properly. It gets the extra power it needs from the grid, whereas off-grid systems don’t because they rely entirely on the battery bank. If you’re using an on-grid system to handle large loads, make sure you have KVA inverters installed.

If your average air conditioner demand is more than normal, such as if you have numerous AC units in your home, it’s also a good idea to add more solar panels with a higher kW rating.

Recommended: 5 Different Types of Solar Mounting Structure

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