A cell is a single electrochemical component that can generate direct voltage by changing chemical energy into electrical energy. Several cells in a battery are typically electrically linked to one another to achieve larger voltages. Another term associated with it is the photovoltaic cell which is the smallest semiconductor component in a PV module that performs the direct current voltage and current (direct current) conversion of light energy. Likewise, it is known as a solar cell.
The word battery cell refers to the fundamental electrochemical unit, or assembly of electrodes, separators, electrolyte, container, and terminals, that serves as a source of electrical energy by directly converting chemical energy.
A photovoltaic (PV) cell is a form of energy harvesting that uses the photovoltaic effect to transform solar energy into usable power. PV cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but they always rely on semiconductors to interact with solar photons to produce an electric current.
What are the layers of photovoltaic cell?
A photovoltaic cell is made up of numerous layers of materials, each serving a particular function. The specifically prepared semiconductor layer is the most significant in a solar cell. It is made up of two separate layers (p-type and n-type) and is what actually uses the photovoltaic effect to transform solar energy into usable power.
A layer of conducting material collects the generated electricity on either side of the semiconductor. It should be noted that the front or lit side of the cell must employ the conductors sparingly to avoid blocking too much of the Sun’s radiation from reaching the semiconductor. In contrast, the backside or shaded side can afford to be totally coated in the conductor.
The anti-reflection coating is the last layer, which is only applied to the side of the cell that is lighted. Due to the inherent reflectivity of semiconductors, reflection loss can be substantial. Reduce the amount of solar radiation that is reflected off the cell’s surface by applying one or more layers of an anti-reflection coating.
Also Read: What is Battery Life?
Is solar cell efficient?
Solar Cell is highly efficient. Since there are numerous elements that affect the efficiency of solar cells, efficiency is a design consideration. The biggest contributing factor is that silicon semiconductors cannot convert 1/4 of the solar energy reaching the earth into electricity.
The lowest photon energy, or band-gap energy, is required by the physics of semiconductors to remove an electron from a crystal structure. A photon becomes thermal energy when its energy falls short of the band-gap. The band-gap energy for silicon is 1.12 electron volts.