A battery pack, which is an assembly of battery cells electrically organized in a row-by-column matrix configuration, is under the control of a battery management system (BMS), a piece of technology designed to deliver a targeted range of voltage and current for a period of time against anticipated load scenarios.
A BMS often provides the following oversight:
- Looking after the battery
- Protecting the batteries
- Determining a battery’s operational status estimate
- Enhancing battery performance continuously
- Updating external devices on operational status
Although the term “battery” in this context refers to the entire pack, the monitoring and control features are particularly used to refer to individual cells or collections of cells known as modules in the overall battery pack assembly.
With the maximum energy density, lithium-ion rechargeable cells are the go-to option for battery packs in a wide range of consumer goods, from laptops to electric automobiles. Even while they work incredibly well, they can be quite unforgiving if used outside of a relatively small Safe Operating Area (SOA), with results that can range from impairing battery performance to seriously harmful outcomes.
How does Battery Management System work?
The job description for the Battery Management System is undoubtedly difficult, and both its general complexity and its scope of oversight may touch on a variety of disciplines, including electrical, digital, control, thermal, and hydraulic.
There isn’t a predetermined or particular set of standards that must be followed in battery management systems. The extent of the technology design and the features actually used typically connect with:
- The battery pack’s price, complexity, and size
- Use of the battery and any safety, durability, and warranty issues
- Certification requirements from various government legislation where there are severe financial consequences for failing to implement acceptable functional safety measures.
Battery pack protection management and capacity management are two crucial BMS design elements among many others. Here, we’ll go through how these two features function. Electrical protection, which means preventing the battery from being damaged by usage outside of its SOA, and thermal protection, which comprises passive and/or active temperature regulation to keep or bring the pack into its SOA, are the two main areas of battery pack protection management.
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What is Charge Management in a BMS?
Unquestionably, one of the most important battery performance benefits a BMS offers is maximizing a battery pack’s capacity. A battery pack may eventually become worthless if this maintenance is neglected. A battery pack “stack” (series array of cells) is not totally equal and intrinsically has somewhat varied leakage or self-discharge rates, which is the root of the problem.
Leakage is a battery chemical trait rather than a manufacturer problem, however statistically, it may be affected by little manufacturing process differences. A battery pack may include initially well-matched cells, but as time goes on, the resemblance between the cells decreases even more, not just as a result of self-discharge but also as a result of charge/discharge cycling, high temperatures, and normal aging.