Solar Panel Components: Exploring the Basics of PV Systems


These components are the building blocks of photovoltaic systems, responsible for harnessing the sun’s energy and converting it into electricity.

Solar panels have become a staple in renewable energy systems. While they may appear as single units, they are, in fact, intricate systems comprising several crucial components working together seamlessly. Understanding solar panel components, materials, and accessories is essential for anyone considering solar energy for their home or business.

What are the Main Solar Panel Components?

A solar PV module, or solar panel, is composed of eight primary components, each explained below:

1. Solar Cells

Solar Panel Components 1

Solar cells serve as the fundamental building blocks of solar panels. Numerous solar cells are combined to create a single solar panel. These solar cells are interconnected through processes such as soldering, encapsulation, mounting onto a metal frame, and testing. The efficiency of a solar panel is closely tied to that of its individual solar cells. The cost and efficiency of these cells impact the overall performance of the solar panel. Advances in solar cell efficiencies have been ongoing over the past decade.

Different materials used in the production of solar cells yield varying efficiencies. Additionally, different companies may achieve differing conversion efficiencies using the same technology. Two common types of solar cells are Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Solar Cells.

2. Solar Glass

Solar glass serves as another vital component of a solar panel, forming the outermost layer. It must possess durability and a reflective surface to enhance the panel’s performance. Solar glass primarily acts as a shield, protecting solar cells from adverse weather conditions, dirt, and dust. Using tempered glass with a thickness ranging from 3mm to 4mm is recommended.

Also See: Can Solar Panels Work Through Glass?

3. EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate)

EVA, or ethylene vinyl acetate, is a highly transparent plastic layer used for encapsulating solar cells. It provides a laminated covering that holds the cells together. EVA should exhibit resilience and tolerance to withstand extreme temperatures and humidity.

4. Back Sheet

The back sheet is another major solar panel component. It constitutes the panel’s rear layer, offering both mechanical protection and electrical insulation. Essentially, it serves as a protective layer.

5. Aluminum Frame

Solar Panel Components

The aluminum frame is a crucial structural component, providing strength to the panel. Using a frame made of lightweight yet robust material is recommended. It should possess rigidity and the ability to endure harsh conditions such as high winds and external forces. Typically, aluminum frames come in two variations: silver and anodized black.

6. Junction Box

Positioned at the panel’s backside, the junction box serves as the central point where cables connect to the panels.

7. Interconnector

Interconnectors facilitate the connection of solar panels to one another. They should be highly weather-resistant and enable secure connections.

8. Silicon Glue


Silicon glue is the commonly used adhesive in solar panels. It forms robust bonds and exhibits resistance to chemicals, moisture, and various weather conditions. Therefore, silicon glue is employed in the assembly of solar panels. Silicon also serves as the most prevalent semiconductor material.

After learning about all major solar panel components, let’s now throw some light on solar panel construction materials.

Also Read: How Much Energy to Make a Solar Panel?

What are Major Solar Panel Construction Materials?

Materials used in the construction of solar photovoltaic modules include:

1. Silicon:

  • Monocrystalline Silicon: Known for high efficiency.
  • Multi-crystalline Silicon: Cost-effective alternative.

2. Amorphous Silicon:

  • Common in thin-film technology but susceptible to degradation.
  • Variants include silicon carbide, silicon germanium, microcrystalline silicon, and silicon nitride.

3. Cadmium Telluride (CdTe):

Cd and Te combined to create efficient thin-film solar cells with an ideal bandgap.

4. Compound Semiconductors:

Gallium and arsenide are used in compound semiconductor solar cells, known for efficiency and compactness.

5. Alloyed Silicon:

Silicon alloyed with aluminum, antimony, or lead to modify the energy bandgap and create multi-junction solar cells.

6. Copper, Indium, Gallium, and Selenide (CIGS):

Used to enhance efficiency and heat dissipation in advanced solar photovoltaic systems.

7. Carbon Nanotubes (CNT):

Employed to improve properties like transparency and current flow.

8. Organic Dyes:

Utilized to widen the bandgap in innovative solar photovoltaics, contributing to sustainability.

9. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2):

Used to enhance performance and heat dissipation in some solar photovoltaic systems.

10. Hybrid Cells:

Combining crystalline silicon and non-crystalline silicon to achieve higher efficiency, albeit with a complex manufacturing process.

These were major solar panel materials. Apart from these materials and components, solar panel accessories also play a pivotal role in solar systems, so let’s learn what are solar panel accessories.

Cross-Reference: Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics

What are Solar Panel Accessories?

A solar power system’s performance also relies on its accessories. Whether for your home or RV, having the right accessories is essential. While specific needs may vary, here’s an overview of essential solar panel accessories:

1. Solar Panels:

solar photo voltaic panels
  • Available in various sizes (e.g., 100W, 250W, 300W, 400W).
  • Types include monocrystalline (more efficient) and polycrystalline.
  • Consider the wattage rating (12V, 24V, 36V, etc.) based on your setup.
  • Choose between rigid (more power) and flexible (lighter and curved roof compatible) panels.

2. Inverters:

  • Convert DC current from solar panels to AC power.
  • Types include string inverters (connected to panels) and micro inverters (per-panel installation).
  • Ensure the inverter’s wattage matches the total load from solar-powered devices.

3. Batteries:

  • Store excess solar energy for nighttime or backup power.
  • Types include lithium (best performance), flooded lead-acid, AGM, and gel batteries.
  • Consider capacity, life cycles, and voltage (e.g., 6V, 12V, 24V, 48V).

4. Solar Wires, Cables, and Connectors:

  • Link components together, transferring energy.
  • Use insulated copper or aluminum wire, color-coded for polarity.
  • MC4 connectors are widely used.

Also, take a look at the Solar Cable Size Selection Guide For PV Plants.

5. Charge Controller:

solar charge controller
  • Regulates current flow, preventing overcharging and overheating.
  • Types include MPPT (higher efficiency) and PWM.
  • Capacity must match battery and solar panel capacity.

6. Monitoring Equipment:

  • Provides real-time system information.
  • Includes system, charge controller, battery, and solar panel monitors.
  • Some offer Bluetooth connectivity and mobile apps.

7. Racking Mounts:

  • Used for roof or ground installations.
  • Components may include end caps, wiring clips, brackets, and rails.
  • Ensure your support structure can handle the weight.

8. Balance of System (BOS):

  • Contains components like load breakers, fuses, and combiner boxes.
  • Tailored to specific system requirements, ensuring safety and control.

9. AC and DC Disconnects:

JAN23 What is AC Disconnect Switch
  • Manual switches for shutting off power from inverters.
  • Check your inverter’s specifications for compatibility.

10. Combiner Box:

  • Electrical container for parallel solar panel connections.
  • Houses circuit breakers, fuses, and terminal connections for wiring.

Each accessory plays a vital role in optimizing your solar power system’s performance and safety. Choose the ones that fit your specific needs and setup. Now, let’s unravel who makes the parts for solar panels.

Also See: Can Circuit Breakers Go Bad Without Tripping?

Who Makes the Parts For Solar Panels?

Solar panels comprise various components, and these components are sourced from different manufacturers. Here is an overview of some prominent companies manufacturing these solar panel components:

1. Solar Cells:

Solar cells are primarily crafted from semiconductor materials, typically monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon. Leading manufacturers in this field include JinkoSolar, JA Solar, and Trina Solar.

2. Metal Frame:

The metal frame, typically composed of aluminum, is produced by companies like Silfab Solar and Solaria.

3. Glass Sheet:

Tempered glass sheets, a crucial component, are manufactured by companies such as First Solar and Qcells.

4. Solar Panel Cables and Connectors:

These essential components are provided by companies like Amphenol Industrial Solar Technologies.

5. Solar Panel Mounting Hardware:

This category encompasses brackets, rails, and clamps used to secure panels to roofs or the ground. Companies like IronRidge and Unirac specialize in producing these components.

6. Solar Panel Charge Controllers:

Manufacturers such as Morningstar and Outback Power produce charge controllers to regulate the energy flow.

7. Solar Panel Inverters:

Inverters, which convert DC power into AC power, are manufactured by companies including SMA America and Enphase Energy.

8. Solar Panel Batteries:

Companies like Tesla and LG Chem manufacture solar panel batteries, offering options for energy storage.

To sum up, the components of solar panels are sourced from diverse manufacturers. This also answers who makes the parts for solar panels.

In summary, solar panels are made up of multiple crucial components that work in harmony to capture sunlight and convert it into clean, renewable energy. By gaining a better understanding of these parts, you can appreciate the complexity of solar technology and make informed choices about incorporating it into your lives.

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