Power requirements for everyone are not the same, and it is applicable for solar panel systems too. Different types of solar power systems are available in the market to suit your requirements, namely on-grid, hybrid, and off-grid solar systems. You can completely shift to solar power and gain freedom from the utility grid with an off-grid solar system. And with an on-grid solar system, your solar system is connected to the grid but is not backed with batteries. Either of these solar systems may not guarantee a constant power supply, but a hybrid solar system is a mix of both systems. Come find out about Hybrid Solar System components. Well, not just this, you will find out about the working and specifications of a 10kW Solar Hybrid System.
What is a Hybrid Solar System?
In this type of solar system PV panels are connected to the utility grid and to batteries both. In this way, the power generated by solar panels is stored in the utility grid and battery. Solar panels produce electricity which is sent to solar inverters. The inverters then change this direct current into an alternating current and supply it to your home or battery.
Excess energy generated by solar panels is stored in a battery until required. And when the battery is sufficiently charged the power generated is fed into the grid to generate credit. Either way, there is no power loss.
What are Hybrid Solar System Components?
With a hybrid solar system, you will get a constant power supply. When there is insufficient power generation from panels, you will get power supply from stored credits in your utility grid. And in case of a power outage, you have a battery backup to power your house.
As the system is connected to multiple power sources, it is a bit more complex in comparison to on-grid and off-grid solar systems. It is the reason a hybrid solar system has comparatively more components.
1. AC Distribution Board/Box (ACDB)
This box is installed between the solar inverter and appliances or devices. The two main components of ACDB Box are SPD and MCB. Here, SPD is Surge Protection Device that protects the system against power surges by earthing the voltage. Miniature Circuit Breaker or MCB trips and breaks the circuit in case of high voltage. AC MCB is used for low circuit currents and for high circuit currents AC Molded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) is used.
With a system ranging between 1 kW and 6 kW, you need a single-phase ACDB box that has a live and neutral wire. Whereas a solar system with more than 6 kW capacity needs a 3-phase junction box that has 3 live wires and 1 neutral wire. Such wiring helps in the adequate management of higher voltages of the system.
2. Bidirectional (Power) Meter
A hybrid solar system needs a bidirectional meter to measure both the incoming and outgoing electricity into the grid from the solar panel system. Once the batteries are fully charged, the inverter supplies excess generated current to the utility grid which is not used by appliances and gets fed into the grid. Excess power stored in the utility grid is converted into credits and these credits are used to pay for electricity supplied from the grid. Bill received at month end will have entries for both, power fed from solar panels into the grid and power supplied from grid to house.
3. Charge Controller
Next in hybrid solar system components is a charge controller that maintains the health of battery backup. They regulate ampere and voltage delivered to loads, inverters, and batteries. Two types of charge controllers are mostly used with solar power systems, namely, PWM and MPPT. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) manage current and protect the components from overcharge, undercharge, and sudden voltage surges.
This device integrated into the solar system provides voltage and current conversions. MPPT charge controller detects the point when solar panels produce maximum output. This charge controller regulates the current entering battery without breaking the circuit between the solar battery and solar panels. It ensures voltage entering batteries adhere to their voltage requirements. Preferably, this charge controller is used for negative ground systems because it basically uses a negative line as a reference and then again switches back to a positive line.
These series charge regulators use a transistor to reconnect panels with high-frequency batteries. A PWM self-adjusts the current by changing the speed, and length of outgoing pulses to the battery. Constantly, this charge controller works as a rapid on/off the controller. A transistor in a pulse width modulation is placed in either a positive or negative line, allowing it to be used in both positive and negative grounds.
4. DC Distribution Board/Box (DCDB)
This protection device is installed between solar panels and solar hybrid inverters to protect them from short circuits and high voltage. A direct current distribution box has SPD. It protects the system against power surges and a fuse that breaks to stop current flow in case of high voltages. You have 2 options: single and three-phase junction boxes when purchasing this component that solely depends on the wattage of your solar panel system.
In case your solar system capacity ranges between 1 kW and 6 kW, you need a single-phase DCDB. But a system of more than 6 kW requires a 3-phase junction box.
5. Hybrid Inverter
The primary function of a hybrid solar inverter is not distinct from any other inverter. The hybrid inverter converts Direct Current (DC) generated from solar panels into Alternating Current (AC) that can be supplied to appliances and batteries connected to the solar system. A hybrid inverter is considered the heart of hybrid solar system components. It is capable of converting power supply from one source to another easily without human interference. Different wattages of hybrid inverters are available to suit your requirements and match the efficiency of solar panel systems.
6. Racking and Mounts
Every solar panel system requires racks and mounts to fix solar panels on the roof. You cannot just put the panels on your roof as every roof has a different inclination and panels get maximum exposure to sunlight. Solar panels need to be inclined to a certain degree to ensure sunlight absorption for longer hours of sunlight exposure. Different types of solar racks and mounts are available. The usage of types depends on the type of roof.
7. Solar Batteries
A hybrid solar system has a battery backup which enables a constant power supply to your house. Solar batteries with C ratings are preferably good for a hybrid solar system. The time for which they provide backup depends on their efficiency. If your solar panels are not sufficiently generating power and there is a power outage at that time, the battery will supply power to your house. Excess power generated from solar panels is stored in a battery which is used as per required.
8. Solar Panels
A hybrid solar system is incomplete without solar panels. Hybrid means power supply from different sources. Thus, PV panels are required for solar energy harvesting. Direct Current generated by solar panels is supplied to an inverter where it is converted into Alternating Current. Different types of solar panels have distinct efficiency and lifespan. There are mainly 3 types of solar panels, namely monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and thin-film (amorphous) solar panels. Mono panels last for most of their lives, about 30 years. Poly is less efficient than mono panels, but it does not last as long as mono panels. Probably around 25 years max, but these are mostly used for residential and commercial applications. Whereas thin-film solar panels are the least efficient and used for small applications and their lifespan is also less than others.
Hybrid Solar System Components and Hybrid Solar System Working: How Do They Work?
Hybrid solar system components work in sync with each other for the smooth functioning of the system. Power generation begins from PV panels that absorb photons from sunlight, which results in the vibration of electrons within the solar cell. Formed by two thin layers with one having a positive and the other one with a negative current, a solar cell has an electric field within. They respond to absorbed heat and light energy from the sun and result in the generation of direct current.
It generally moves in one direction, which is why it is termed a direct current. This power generated by solar cells is supplied to the inverter through strings connected by solar panels to the solar inverter. Since most appliances are powered with alternating current, therefore an inverter is required for conversion.
A solar inverter converts DC to AC and transmits the same to the solar battery and grid. Solar batteries are charged from this current and the grid supplies the current to power appliances and devices at your house. On a cloudy day when there is insufficient power generation from solar panels, the required power is supplied from the grid.
During a power outage at night, there is no solar power generation; thus, power stored in batteries is utilized to provide electricity to your house. I hope you understood about the hybrid solar system working.
What are the Specifications of 10kW Solar Hybrid System?
A hybrid solar system comes in different power wattages that can run appliances with different power requirements. A 10K hybrid solar power system is capable of generating 44-55 kW per day with solar battery storage of around 10 kWh. This amount of power is enough for a household with 5–7 people. A 10 kWh system has remote monitoring that can be controlled via an application and web portal. The following are the specifications of a 10kW solar hybrid system.
|Accessories||Combiner box, PV Cable, MC4, and Mounting Support|
|Battery||12V 250AH * 20|
|Dimensions||Europe and United States Standard|
|Inverter||10 kW (3-phase)|
|Notion||System Capacity adjustable as per customer requirements|
|Package||System connecting drawings (installing) and Standard wooded package|
|PV Solar Panels||42*265W|
|System capacity||10 kW|
So, now you know about hybrid solar system components. Other than solar panels, batteries, and solar inverters, charge controllers are equally important. A solar system installation is an expensive process, and no one wants the inverter of the battery to be damaged due to power fluctuations. To avoid such problems and for a healthy long-lasting solar panel system you need to incorporate efficient components. Then only you can ensure the hybrid solar system working is up to the mark and you get maximum output from the system.